Taxonomy

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Solove Taxonomy

Daniel Solove categorized privacy harms with his taxonomy when he realized the lack of modern taxonomy of information privacy law in the 21st century. The US law has been failed by non-addressing privacy harms and violations. However, under the 4th Amendment, over 300 state privacy laws, specific privacy-related federal laws, and precedents identify and protect some privacy violations and harms that has been addressed by Solove. Moreover, although some state laws do not cover all the privacy violations, the others state all the industry violations, such as California. He argues that privacy and society are indivisible integrity. Therefore, it is categorized to identify and understand socially recognized privacy violations with basic groups of harmful activities.

Regardless of the taxonomy, those activities are COLLECTION , INFORMATION PROCESSING, INFORMATION DISSEMINATION , and INVASION. The groups indicate four different related subgroups of harmful privacy activities.

Definitions

COLLECTION INFORMATION PROCESSING INFORMATION DISSEMINATION INVASION
Surveillance: Watching, listening to, or monitoring of a person’s activities Aggregation: Combining of various pieces of personal information Breach of Confidentiality: Breaking a promise to keep a person's information confidential Intrusion: Disturbing an individual's tranquility or solitude
Interrogation: Questioning or probing for personal information Insecurity: Carelessness in protecting information from leaks or improper access Disclosure: Revealing truthful information about a person that impacts their security or the way others judge her character Decisional Interference: Interfering with an individual’s decision making
Identification: Linking of information to a particular individual Exposure: Revealing an individual's nudity, grief, or bodily functions
Secondary Use: Using personal information for a purpose other than the purpose for which it was collected Increased Accessibility: Amplifying the accessibility of personal information
Exclusion: Failing to let an individual know about the information that others have about them and participate in its handling or use Blackmail: Threatening to disclose personal information
Appropriation: Using an individual's identity to serve the aims and interests of another
Distortion: Disseminating false or misleading information about an individual
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